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  Over the years there have been many RVHT projects, funded by a number of agencies. A partial list includes:

  • U.S. Army
    • ACT II, ca. 1996—natural language capability (itself built upon prior funding at Duke University) integrated into maintenance training with a robotic character;
    • Medical Research and Materiel Command, (ca. 1996-2002)—supporting R&D into simulation of physiology and behavior, especially for emergency care;
    • Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (2005; 2013-2016)— funding to support medical simulation training for first response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events; funding for development of a virtual human-based neuropsychological exam administrator;

  • RTI International (1998-2001; 2009-2010)—internal strategic investment as initial seeding, for capability and prototype development (technology trademarked as Avatalk); later support for understanding dialog models for discussions of sensitive topics;

  • National Science Foundation (2001-2006; 2006-2009)—first funding for basic research into the design, development, and usage of virtual humans; continued funding for basic RVHT research, particularly involving collaboration and dialog between the human and virtual human to assess behavior of different participant groups;

  • National Institute of Justice (2000-2002; 2002-2004)—supported development of 'mentally ill' virtual humans, for training of law enforcement personnel; and of RVHT scenarios to assess treatment response in aggressive inmates;

  • National Institutes of Health
    • National Institute of Drug Abuse (2001-2004)—provided support for development of a virtual human-based assessment designed to elicit psychosocial risk factors;
    • Human Subjects Enhancement Research Program (2002-2003)—support for development of a virtual patient by which a healthcare worker can learn informed consent procedures;
    • National Cancer Institute (2007-2009)—support to quantify and profile childhood cancer survivors' social functioning deficits;

  • Eshelman Institute for Innovation (2016-date)—is supporting development of a comprehensive virtual patient for training and assessment of clinical skills; initial efforts being conducted within the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy



Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed on these pages are those of the administrator and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of the sources of support.